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How to make money during high inflation and high interest rates inviroments

How to make money during high inflation and high interest rates inviroments

The impact of rising interest rates on a particular investment strategy can vary depending on various factors, including the type of assets being invested in, the specific strategy being used, and the overall economic conditions.

Generally, rising interest rates can have a negative impact on bond prices, as higher yields from newly issued bonds become more attractive to investors relative to existing bonds with lower yields. This can result in declining bond prices and potentially negative returns for bond investors.

On the other hand, rising interest rates can be beneficial for some types of equity investments, such as financials and utilities, which may benefit from the increase in lending and borrowing rates.

It is important to consider the potential impact of rising interest rates on a particular investment strategy and to regularly monitor and adjust the portfolio as needed to align with changing market conditions.

It is also important to keep in mind that past performance is not indicative of future results, and that investing always involves risk, including the possibility of losing money.

 

Making money in high inflation and high interest rate environments can be challenging, but it can be done through a well-thought-out investment strategy. Here is a general strategy that may help:

  1. Diversification: Diversifying your investments across different asset classes, such as stocks, bonds, commodities, and real estate, can help to mitigate the impact of inflation and interest rate changes on your portfolio.

  2. Inflation-linked investments: Consider investing in inflation-linked bonds, which are bonds that pay a yield linked to inflation, or in commodities such as gold, which may benefit from rising inflation.

  3. Real assets: Real assets, such as real estate and infrastructure, can also benefit from inflation as the value of these assets may increase with rising prices.

  4. Financials and utilities: Financials and utilities sectors can potentially benefit from rising interest rates, as they may earn higher returns on their lending and borrowing activities.

  5. Active management: Consider actively managing your portfolio to take advantage of market changes and make adjustments as needed.

It is important to keep in mind that investing always involves risk, including the possibility of losing money. Additionally, investing strategies that have worked in the past may not necessarily be effective in the future. It is important to regularly monitor the performance of your investments and make adjustments as needed.

It is advisable to consult a financial advisor before making any investment decisions.

 

Here are ten potential strategies for investing in a high inflation and high interest rate environment:

  1. Diversification: Spread your investments across different asset classes, such as stocks, bonds, commodities, and real estate, to reduce the impact of inflation and interest rate changes on your portfolio.

  2. Inflation-linked bonds: Consider investing in inflation-linked bonds, which pay a yield linked to inflation, to hedge against rising prices.

  3. Commodities: Invest in commodities such as gold, which may benefit from rising inflation.

  4. Real assets: Real assets, such as real estate and infrastructure, can also benefit from inflation as the value of these assets may increase with rising prices.

  5. Financials and utilities: Consider investing in financials and utilities sectors, which can potentially benefit from rising interest rates.

  6. Emerging markets: Emerging market countries, which often have higher growth potential, may also benefit from rising inflation and interest rates.

  7. Active management: Consider actively managing your portfolio to take advantage of market changes and make adjustments as needed.

  8. Short-term investments: Consider investing in short-term debt instruments, such as Treasury bills, which may offer higher yields in a rising interest rate environment.

  9. Dollar-denominated investments: Consider investing in dollar-denominated assets, as a strong dollar may provide a hedge against inflation and a rising interest rate environment.

  10. Alternative investments: Consider alternative investments, such as private equity or hedge funds, which can offer diversification and potential protection against inflation and interest rate changes.

It is important to keep in mind that investing always involves risk, including the possibility of losing money. Additionally, investment strategies that have worked in the past may not necessarily be effective in the future. It is important to regularly monitor the performance of your investments and make adjustments as needed.

It is advisable to consult a financial advisor before making any investment decisions.

Trading  room  keyboards

Trading room keyboards

 

 

The evolution of specialized trading keyboards can be traced back to 1981 when Bloomberg first introduced these innovative devices. At the time, the keyboards were connected to control rooms via cables and were equipped with basic features such as a trackball, speaker, microphone, and headphone jacks. Over the years, the design of these keyboards underwent significant advancements, such as the addition of wireless infrared connection, biometric authentication, message boxes, and multimedia functions. By the 1990s, trading keyboards looked similar to regular keyboards with highlighted hotkeys. Today, Bloomberg keyboards continue to adapt to changing customer preferences with updated features, while maintaining a similar appearance to regular keyboards.

 A look back: The Bloomberg Keyboard | Insights | Bloomberg Professional  Services

The Bloomberg Keyboard is a specialized keyboard that has been specifically designed for traders. Developed by Bloomberg L.P., one of the world's largest financial software, data, and media companies, the Bloomberg Keyboard has been a popular choice among traders since its inception in 1981. The initial version of the keyboard was connected to a control room via a special cable and featured a Trackball, speaker, and jacks for microphone and headphone. Over the years, the keyboard has undergone several upgrades and now features infrared radiation for wireless connection, biometric authentication, message boxes, and multimedia functions.

In the 1990s, the Bloomberg Keyboard looked similar to regular user keyboards, but with highlighted hotkeys, making it easier for traders to access the functions they needed quickly. Today, the Bloomberg Keyboard resembles a regular keyboard, but with updated features that cater to changing customer preferences.

The Bloomberg Keyboard is designed to allow traders to perform specific functions with a single button press, increasing their speed and efficiency. The keyboard is customizable, allowing traders to configure it to their individual needs, and is often considered to be one of the best specialized trading keyboards available. The cost of the Bloomberg Keyboard starts at around $300.

In conclusion, the Bloomberg Keyboard is a specialized trading keyboard that offers several advanced features to help traders make the most of their trading activities. While it may be more expensive than a standard keyboard, it offers the convenience of executing multiple actions with just one button press, making it a popular choice among traders.

Bloomberg Keyboard Financial Trading Sea100 for sale online | eBay

 

In the fast-paced world of trading, having the right technical equipment is as important as having the right skills and knowledge. Components such as a computer, software, and multiple monitors, amongst others, play a crucial role in the success of a trader. To enhance efficiency and speed, specialized trading keyboards are available that perform specific functions with the press of a button. Customizable configurations allow traders to tailor the keyboard to their individual needs.

While specialized trading keyboards can be helpful, they are not a requirement, and traders may choose to use a standard keyboard with programmed hotkeys or even a mouse, based on their comfort and convenience. There are also keyboards that feature built-in touchscreens for controlling multiple devices, although they can be expensive and may not be accessible to all traders.

Some companies specialize in producing equipment for traders, such as Bionic Trader Systems, which offers the Keyboard Trader – a customizable keyboard with various functions at the touch of a button. Other specialized keyboards, such as the WEY MK06/RAY06 and the TradeMaster, also offer unique features such as built-in touchscreens and modular configurations.

When choosing a trading keyboard, it is essential to consider factors such as cost, ergonomics, size, backlighting, and connectivity options, in addition to personal needs and preferences. Specialized trading keyboards provide the advantage of modularity and the convenience of executing multiple actions with just one button press, but may not be the best option for everyone. Ultimately, the choice of a trading keyboard should be based on individual requirements, and traders should choose what works best for them.

How  arbitrage  traders make money?

How arbitrage traders make money?

Arbitrage traders make money by taking advantage of price differences between different markets or exchanges. They buy an asset in one market where the price is low and simultaneously sell it in another market where the price is higher, capturing the difference as profit. This can be done with stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, or other financial instruments. The key to successful arbitrage is to act quickly to take advantage of temporary mispricings and have the ability to efficiently move assets between markets.

 

Most popular  arbitrage  strategies

 

  1. Statistical Arbitrage: This strategy involves identifying and exploiting price discrepancies between closely related financial instruments, such as stocks within the same industry or sector.

  2. Spatial Arbitrage: This strategy involves taking advantage of price differences between different geographic markets, such as purchasing a stock in one country and selling it in another where the price is higher.

  3. Temporal Arbitrage: This strategy involves taking advantage of time lags in price adjustments, such as buying a stock after a temporary drop in price and selling it after the price has rebounded.

  4. Conversion Arbitrage: This strategy involves exploiting pricing differences between related derivatives, such as options and the underlying stock.

  5. Merger Arbitrage: This strategy involves taking advantage of price differences that can arise from the announcement of a merger or acquisition. An arbitrage trader may buy stock in the target company, which is typically undervalued, and sell stock in the acquiring company, which is typically overvalued.

 

Biggest  arbitrage  firms

 

  1. Renaissance Technologies: A quant-focused hedge fund that uses advanced mathematical models to identify and exploit market inefficiencies.

  2. Two Sigma Investments: A quantitative investment management firm that uses cutting-edge technology and data analysis to drive returns.

  3. Millennium Management: A global hedge fund that uses a multi-strategy approach, including arbitrage strategies, to generate returns.

  4. Citadel Securities: One of the largest market makers in the world, Citadel uses algorithmic trading and other strategies, including arbitrage, to generate profits.

  5. Point72 Asset Management: A multi-strategy hedge fund that uses both traditional and quantitative investment strategies, including arbitrage.

It's worth noting that the size and relative importance of these firms may change over time, and there may be other significant arbitrage firms that are not listed here.

 

Books  about  arbitrage  trading

  1. "Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time" by Tomas Björk: This comprehensive textbook provides an in-depth look at the mathematics and concepts behind arbitrage in continuous time markets.

  2. "The Mathematics of Arbitrage" by Frederi G Beirbäck: This book provides a mathematical approach to understanding the key concepts and techniques used in arbitrage trading.

  3. "The Handbook of Fixed Income Securities" by Frank J. Fabozzi: This comprehensive reference provides detailed information on a variety of fixed income securities and strategies, including arbitrage strategies.

  4. "Pairs Trading: Quantitative Methods and Analysis" by Ganapathy Vidyamurthy: This book provides a detailed look at the mechanics and mathematics of pairs trading, which is a popular form of statistical arbitrage.

  5. "Hedge Fund Market Wizards" by Jack D. Schwager: This book features interviews with successful hedge fund managers, including several who use arbitrage strategies to generate returns.

 

How  Sales traders make money in Fixed Income

How Sales traders make money in Fixed Income

Fixed income sales traders make money by buying and selling fixed income securities, such as bonds, on behalf of institutional clients. They typically work for investment banks or large financial institutions.

  1. Spreads: Sales traders make money by earning a spread, which is the difference between the price they buy a bond for and the price they sell it for. The larger the spread, the more money the sales trader makes.

  2. Commissions: Sales traders also earn money through commissions, which are fees charged to clients for executing trades. These commissions can be a flat fee or a percentage of the trade's value.

  3. Markup: Sales traders may also make money by marking up the price of a bond when they sell it to a client. This is a common practice in the fixed income market, and it allows sales traders to earn a profit on top of the spread and commission.

  4. Financing: Sales traders also earn money by financing the bonds, which means borrowing from a lender to purchase the bond and selling it with a higher price.

  5. Relationship building: Sales traders also earn money by building strong relationships with clients and providing them with valuable insights and research. This can lead to repeat business and more trading opportunities.

In summary, fixed income sales traders make money through spreads, commissions, markups, financing, and relationship building with clients. Their main goal is to buy and sell bonds on behalf of institutional clients, by doing so they make money through the difference in prices and commissions.

 

Fixed income sales traders typically communicate with clients through a variety of channels, including:

  1. Phone: Sales traders will frequently speak with clients over the phone to discuss market conditions, provide updates on trade activity, and offer new investment ideas or strategies.

  2. Email: Sales traders will also use email to correspond with clients, sending them market updates, research reports, and other relevant information.

  3. In-person meetings: Sales traders may also meet with clients in person to discuss their investment needs and provide more detailed information about specific securities or strategies.

  4. Video conferencing: With the advent of technology, sales traders also communicate with clients via video conferencing, this allows them to have face-to-face conversations with clients from different locations.

  5. Chat: Sales traders also communicate with clients through chat platforms, this is a quick way to provide updates or answer questions.

In their communication, sales traders will typically use industry jargon and terminology, they also need to be able to explain complex financial concepts in a clear and concise manner, this is important to establish trust and credibility with clients. They also need to be able to listen to clients and understand their investment needs, and tailor their communication to those needs.

In summary, fixed income sales traders communicate with clients through phone, email, in-person meetings, video conferencing and chat, they use industry jargon and terminology, and they need to explain complex financial concepts in a clear and concise manner, and also to listen and understand clients' investment needs to tailor their communication.

Fixed income sales traders communicate with research teams to sell investment ideas in the following ways:

  1. Research Reports: Sales traders will often receive research reports from the research team, which provide in-depth analysis of specific securities or market conditions. They will use this information to present investment ideas to clients and to provide them with a detailed explanation of the investment opportunity.

  2. Meetings: Sales traders will also meet with research teams to discuss new investment ideas and to get a deeper understanding of the underlying market conditions. These meetings will allow them to ask questions and get additional insights on the research team's analysis.

  3. Conference Calls: Sales traders may also participate in conference calls with the research team, where they will discuss market conditions and new investment ideas. This allows them to get real-time updates on the markets and to ask questions of the research team.

  4. Email: Sales traders will also use email to communicate with research teams, this is a quick way to ask questions or request additional information.

  5. Chat: Sales traders also communicate with research teams through chat platforms, this is a quick way to provide updates or ask questions.

In their communication, sales traders need to be able to understand the research team's analysis and be able to explain it to clients in a clear and concise manner. They also need to be able to identify potential investment opportunities and tailor their communication to the specific needs of clients.

In summary, fixed income sales traders communicate with research teams through research reports, meetings, conference calls, email, and chat. They use this information to present investment ideas to clients and provide a detailed explanation of the investment opportunity. They need to understand the research team's analysis and be able to explain it in a clear and concise manner, also they need to identify potential investment opportunities and tailor their communication to the specific needs of clients.

 

How math can help in trading

How math can help in trading

Math plays a crucial role in trading by helping traders and investors analyze and make sense of market data. Some of the ways math is used in trading include:

  1. Technical Analysis: Technical analysis uses mathematical tools and techniques to identify patterns and trends in historical market data. This includes using indicators such as moving averages, relative strength index (RSI), and Bollinger bands to make predictions about future price movements.

  2. Algorithmic Trading: Algorithmic trading uses mathematical models to analyze market data and make trades. These models are designed to identify profitable trading opportunities and make trades quickly and efficiently.

  3. Risk Management: Math is used to calculate and manage risk in trading. This includes using mathematical models to identify and hedge risks, such as value at risk (VaR) and expected shortfall (ES), and to calculate the risk-reward ratio of a trade.

  4. Portfolio Optimization: Math is used to optimize a trader's or investor's portfolio. This includes using mathematical models to determine the optimal mix of assets to maximize returns while minimizing risk.

  5. Statistical Arbitrage: Statistical arbitrage uses statistical methods to identify inefficiencies in the market and exploit them. This includes using techniques such as cointegration, which looks for pairs of stocks that have a statistical relationship and profit when the relationship deviates from its mean.

  6. Machine Learning: Machine learning uses mathematical models to analyze and learn from market data, and make predictions about future price movements.

In summary, math plays a crucial role in trading by providing traders and investors with the tools and techniques they need to analyze market data, make informed decisions, and manage risk.

One example of a math-based trading strategy is using a moving average crossover to identify buy and sell signals.

  1. The strategy involves plotting two moving averages on a price chart, a short-term moving average (e.g. 20-day) and a long-term moving average (e.g. 50-day).

  2. A buy signal is generated when the short-term moving average crosses above the long-term moving average. This indicates that the short-term trend is bullish and that the stock is likely to continue to rise.

  3. A sell signal is generated when the short-term moving average crosses below the long-term moving average. This indicates that the short-term trend is bearish and that the stock is likely to continue to fall.

  4. The trader can use the moving average crossover strategy in conjunction with other technical indicators, such as the Relative Strength Index (RSI) or the Stochastic Oscillator, to confirm the buy or sell signal and filter out false signals.

  5. Risk management is important in this strategy, the trader should set stop loss orders to limit their potential losses.

This is just one example of a math-based trading strategy, and it's important to note that past performance is not a guarantee of future results. Traders should always conduct their own research

 Most successful traders in the financial industry who have used mathematical and quantitative methods to inform their trading decisions. Some of the most notable include:

  • James Harris Simons, founder and former chairman of Renaissance Technologies. He is a mathematician and hedge fund manager who has achieved exceptional returns using quantitative strategies.

  • Kenneth Griffin, founder and CEO of Citadel LLC. He is a billionaire hedge fund manager who uses mathematical models to inform his trading strategies.

  • Paul Tudor Jones, founder of Tudor Investment Corporation. He is a hedge fund manager who uses technical analysis, a method that uses mathematical formulas and chart patterns, to inform his trading decisions.

  • David Shaw, founder of D. E. Shaw & Co. He is a computer scientist and hedge fund manager who uses quantitative strategies and complex algorithms to inform his trading decisions.

  • Peter Thiel, founder of Palantir Technologies, he is a successful entrepreneur and venture capitalist who uses quantitative strategies for his investments.

  • Ray Dalio, founder of Bridgewater Associates, He is a successful hedge fund manager and investor who uses quantitative strategies and economic principles to inform his trading decisions.

These individuals have achieved exceptional returns and have been widely recognized as some of the most successful traders in the financial industry.

It worth to mention that there are many other successful math traders that have used quantitative methods to achieve success in the financial industry.

Steven Cohen  trading  strategy explained

Steven Cohen trading strategy explained

Steve Cohen is a hedge fund manager and the founder of Point72 Asset Management. He is known for his aggressive, high-risk trading strategy that has led to significant returns for his investors.

Steven A. Cohen is an American hedge fund manager, businessman and philanthropist. He is the founder and current Chairman of Point72 Asset Management, a hedge fund company.

Cohen began his career in the financial industry in 1978 as a trader at Gruntal & Co. He then founded S.A.C. Capital Advisors in 1992, which grew to become one of the most successful hedge funds in the world. In 2013, S.A.C. Capital Advisors pleaded guilty to insider trading and paid a $1.8 billion fine. Cohen converted the firm into a family office, now called Point72 Asset Management, which manages his personal fortune and that of his employees.

Cohen is known for his investment acumen and has earned the nickname "The Hedge Fund King". He has been consistently ranked among the highest-earning hedge fund managers and is considered one of the most successful traders of all time.

Cohen is also known for his philanthropic efforts. He has donated to various charities and causes, including education, healthcare and the arts. He also established the Steven and Alexandra Cohen Foundation, which focuses on improving the lives of children and veterans.

Despite some controversies in the past, Cohen is still considered one of the most successful investors in the world, with a net worth of over $14 billion as of 2021.

 

The main elements of Cohen's trading strategy include:

  1. Event-Driven Investing: Cohen's firm, Point72 Asset Management, employs event-driven investing, which involves identifying companies that are going through significant changes such as mergers, acquisitions, or management changes. Cohen looks for companies that are undervalued and are likely to see a significant increase in value due to these changes.

  2. Activist Investing: Cohen's firm also employs activist investing, which involves taking a large stake in a company and actively engaging with management to push for changes that will increase the company's value. Cohen's firm has been known to push for changes such as cost cutting, asset sales, and management changes.

  3. Short Selling: Cohen's firm engages in short selling, which involves betting against a stock by selling shares that the fund does not own with the aim of buying them back at a lower price. This strategy can be used to profit from falling stock prices.

  4. Risk Management: Cohen's firm has a rigorous risk management process in place to minimize losses and maximize returns. The firm uses mathematical models to identify and hedge risks.

  5. Quantitative analysis: Cohen's firm uses quantitative analysis to identify profitable trading opportunities. This approach uses mathematical models to analyze market data and make predictions about future prices.

  6. Insider trading: Cohen's firm has been known for using insider information to make trades, which is illegal in most of the countries. Despite this, Cohen and his firm have been able to generate significant returns for its investors.

In summary, Steve Cohen's trading strategy is an aggressive, high-risk approach that employs event-driven investing, activist investing, short selling, quantitative analysis and a rigorous risk management process. The firm has been known for using insider information to make trades which is illegal in most of the countries. Despite this, Cohen and his firm have been able to generate significant returns for its investors.

5 Best  trading  Rules of  Steven Cohen

  1. "Be patient and disciplined in your approach to trading. Don't let emotions drive your decisions."

  2. "Do your own research and analysis. Don't rely solely on the opinions of others."

  3. "Be willing to take calculated risks. Sometimes the biggest rewards come from taking the biggest risks."

  4. "Be flexible and adaptable in your approach. Markets are constantly changing, and you need to be able to change with them."

  5. "Have a strong risk management process in place. This will help you minimize losses and maximize returns."

 

Jim Simons Trading  Strategy  explained

Jim Simons Trading Strategy explained

Jim Simons is a mathematical physicist and hedge fund manager who is best known for his quantitative trading strategy. His firm, Renaissance Technologies, uses complex mathematical models to identify profitable trading opportunities in the financial markets.

James Harris "Jim" Simons is an American mathematician, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist. He is the founder and former chairman of Renaissance Technologies, a quantitative investment management firm.

Simons received his Ph.D in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1961. He then worked as a mathematics professor at MIT and Harvard before moving to the private sector. In 1982, he founded Renaissance Technologies, which uses mathematical models and algorithms to analyze and execute trades. The firm's flagship Medallion Fund is one of the most successful hedge funds in history, achieving an annualized return of over 30% for over two decades.

Simons is known for his investment acumen and is considered one of the most successful hedge fund managers of all time. He has been consistently ranked among the highest-earning hedge fund managers and has a net worth of over $23 billion as of 2021.

Simons is also known for his philanthropy. He has donated millions of dollars to various causes, including education, science, and healthcare. He established the Simons Foundation, which supports research in mathematics, theoretical physics, and the life sciences.

In addition to his business and philanthropic endeavors, Simons is also a patron of the arts and has donated to cultural institutions and charities. He is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey and a Trustee of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

 

The main elements of Simons' trading strategy include:

  1. Statistical Arbitrage: Renaissance Technologies uses statistical arbitrage, which involves identifying statistical patterns in market data and using that information to make trades. This approach looks for inefficiencies in the market and seeks to exploit them.

  2. Algorithmic Trading: Renaissance Technologies uses complex algorithms to analyze market data and execute trades. These algorithms are designed to identify profitable trading opportunities and make trades quickly and efficiently.

  3. High-Frequency Trading: Renaissance Technologies uses high-frequency trading (HFT) to make rapid trades in large volumes. This allows the firm to take advantage of small price movements in the market and make large profits.

  4. Machine Learning: Renaissance Technologies also uses machine learning techniques to analyze market data and identify profitable trading opportunities.

  5. Risk Management: The firm has a strong risk management process in place to minimize losses and maximize returns. The firm uses mathematical models to identify and hedge risks.

  6. Short-term trading: Renaissance Technologies is known for its short-term trading. The firm's flagship fund, Medallion Fund, which is open only to Renaissance employees, is one of the most successful hedge funds of all time, with returns of more than 35% per year, net of fees, since its inception in 1988.

In summary, Jim Simons' trading strategy is a quantitative approach that uses advanced mathematical models, algorithmic trading, high-frequency trading, and machine learning to identify profitable trading opportunities in the financial markets. The firm also has a strong risk management process in place to minimize losses and maximize returns. It is known for its short-term trading, which has been highly successful.

 

5 Quotes of  Jim  Simons

  1. "The most important thing is to find people who are smart, who are curious and who are willing to take risks."

  2. "The best ideas come from people who are not experts in the field."

  3. "If you're not willing to react with equanimity to a market price decline of 50% two or three times a century, you're not fit to be a common shareholder, and you deserve the mediocre result you're going to get compared to the people who do have the temperament, who can be more philosophical about these market fluctuations."

  4. "The most important thing is to be able to learn from your mistakes, and to learn from your successes."

  5. "The key to our success has been the ability to attract and retain talented people and to provide them with the tools and resources they need to be successful. We have always believed that the best ideas come from people who are not experts in the field, and we have worked hard to create an environment that encourages creativity and innovation."

 

RISK WARNING:

Past performance is not necessarily an indicator of future performance.

These results are based on simulated or hypothetical work results, which have certain inherent limitations. Unlike the results shown in the real performance report, these results do not reflect real trading. In addition, since these transactions have not actually been completed, the results may not be adequately or excessively offset by the influence, if any, of certain market factors, such as lack of liquidity. Modeled or hypothetical trading programs in general are also subject to the fact that they are developed based on previous indicators. None of the reported system performance reports guarantee that any account will achieve the same profit or loss ratio close to those shown.

 In addition, hypothetical trading does not involve financial risk, and the indicators of a non-hypothetical trading report cannot fully take into account the impact of financial risk in actual trading. For example, the ability to sustain losses or adhere to a certain trading program, despite trade losses, is a significant factor that can adversely affect the actual results of trading. There are many other factors related to the markets as a whole or to the implementation of any particular trading program that cannot be fully taken into account when preparing hypothetical results, each of which can adversely affect the actual results of trading.

Futures and forex trading contains substantial risk and is not for every investor. An investor could potentially lose all or more than the initial investment. Risk capital is money that can be lost without jeopardizing ones’ financial security or life style. Only risk capital should be used for trading and only those with sufficient risk capital should consider trading. Past performance is not necessarily indicative of future results.